The phrase "personalized learning" gets tossed around a lot in education circles. Sometimes it's used in the context of educational technology tools that offer lessons keyed to the academic level of individual students. Other times it's referring to the personal touch of a teacher getting to know a student, learning about their interests and tailoring lessons to meet both their needs and their passion areas. As with most education jargon, the phrase isn't fixed, but it usually connects to the idea that not all students need the same thing at the same time. It implies choice, multiple pathways to learning, many ways to demonstrate competency and resists the notion that all students learn the same way.
Educator Mia MacMeekin has put together a clear infographic highlighting some of the ways teachers design "personalized" curriculum.