In response to the severe drought conditions that plague most of the state, the University of California and the city of Berkeley have ramped up efforts to curb water use.
Runoff from several university lawns has been of particular concern to some local residents. Water from nearby sprinkler systems sometimes flows onto pathways and sidewalks around campus, but the runoff is unintentional and closely monitored, according to Sal Genito, associate director of Grounds, Custodial and Environmental Services for UC Berkeley.
The university has already cut back on watering by 10 percent, as per a mandate from the governor’s office.
But an aging irrigation system -- built more than 50 years ago -- and a sloped campus make it difficult to evenly and sufficiently water all the vegetation on campus without some inefficiencies, Genito said.
He noted that staff members do their best to limit wasteful irrigation but cannot monitor all of the campus at once, so they appreciate help from members of the public.
“We’re always looking for people to report and share with us what they’re seeing because we definitely don’t have enough eyes," Genito said. “And we rely a lot on the public to help us identify those areas [with runoff].”
Efforts are currently underway to update Cal’s irrigation system, Genito said. New technology like a central control system, motion sensors and shut-off valves will help staff members control breaks and leaks more effectively than in the past.
By using new equipment to measure evapotranspiration -- the combination of evaporation from the Earth’s surface and transpiration from plants -- the university can also determine the appropriate amount of water needed for irrigation, Genito said.
Looking ahead, the school has allotted funds for a new landscaping initiative that would convert around six lawns throughout campus to meadows, which are equally pleasant to the eye but are more drought resistant, according to Genito.
“They look just as beautiful, people will appreciate them just as much, and they use tremendously less amounts of water,” Genito said.
He estimated that Cal would save several thousand gallons of water per year due to the switch. And as more money becomes available, more grass will be converted to meadows, although lawns used for recreational purposes will remain.
But simply reducing the amount of water used for irrigation is not enough, Genito said. Watering of plants and other vegetation is already fairly low, and cutting off too much water to larger trees with shallow root systems could cause them to die, destabilize and potentially fall over from strong winds.
The real savings come from water conservation fixtures that would allow the school to reclaim and repurpose water for irrigation, according to Genito.
And to save even more, the school must also focus its conservation efforts on other areas of water use. UC Berkeley uses over 600 million gallons of water a year and irrigation comprises less than 10 percent of that total, said Lisa McNeilly, Cal's director of sustainability. Domestic uses, like showers and bathrooms, account for half of the total. Residence halls account for 25 percent.
Initiatives over the past few decades have already succeeded in reducing the university’s total water use by 17 percent since 1990, McNeilly said, even though the campus’s population and infrastructure has grown since then. In the past year alone, Mcneilly said the school has managed to curb water use by 5 percent to 9 percent, partially due to more efficient irrigation and toilet retrofits.
Cal’s sustainability team current goal is to reduce potable water levels to 10 percent below 2008 levels by 2020 and 20 percent below 2008 levels if adjusting for population increases, according to its 2013 sustainability report.
The state of California and the city of Berkeley are also pursuing water conservation initiatives to complement local efforts. On the state level, new regulations imposed in late July could lead to fines of up to $500 for excessive water use.
In Berkeley, city officials have called for a 10 percent reduction in the city’s water consumption, according to a report by the city manager.
Fixing leaks in aging infrastructure and using less water for certain parks and medians are two measures mentioned by the report. The Public Works Department is also looking into the use of reclaimed water for median watering and vactor trucks, which unclog storm drains.
Berkeley has already reduced its total water use for several decades, according to the report. The city has curbed water consumption by 20 percent since 2000 and 36 percent since 1975.
Individual districts have joined in on the savings as well. Cleaners in downtown Berkeley have stopped pressure washing the sidewalks and streets, according to John Caner, CEO of the Downtown Berkeley Association.
Instead, they use a vacuum surface cleaner, which also uses water, but reclaims and recycles it so there is no runoff. But while it’s more drought-friendly, the surface cleaner goes at about half the pace of normal pressure washing, Caner said.
Cleaners will still use pressure washing when there are health and safety concerns. In the case of animal and human feces, and sometimes garbage, the association will pressure wash the affected area to ensure it is completely clean.
Caner said the association is looking into more sophisticated cleaning equipment, which would cost around $10,000. He said the investment would likely be worthwhile.
“The board [of the Downtown Berkeley Association] is really committed to being very thoughtful in this and also being a leading business improvement district in the state,” Caner said.
KQED News Associate Berkeleyside is an independently owned news website based in Berkeley, Calif. Click here if you would you like to receive the latest Berkeley news in your inbox once a day for free with Berkeleyside’s Daily Briefing email.