Special adviser to the provost for educational equity and academic success at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Jody Greene says grades are particularly harmful to students from lower-income families. (Amanda Cain for The Hechinger Report)
SANTA CRUZ, Calif. — Joy Malak floundered through her freshman year in college.
“I had to learn how to balance my finances. I had to learn how to balance work and school and the relationship I’m in.” The hardest part about being a new college student, Malak said, “is not the coursework. It’s learning how to be an adult.”
That took a toll on her grades. “I didn’t do well,” said Malak, who powered through and is now starting her sophomore year as a neuroscience and literature double major at the University of California, Santa Cruz, or UCSC. “It took a while for me to detangle my sense of self-worth from the grades that I was getting. It made me consider switching out of my major a handful of times.”
Experiences like these are among the reasons behind a growing movement to stop assigning conventional A through F letter grades to first-year college students and, sometimes, upperclassmen.
Called “un-grading,” the idea is meant to ease the transition to higher education — especially for freshmen who are the first in their families to go to college or who weren’t well prepared for college-level work in high school and need more time to master it.
But advocates say the most important reason to adopt un-grading is that students have become so preoccupied with grades, they aren’t actually learning.
“Grades are not a representation of student learning, as hard as it is for us to break the mindset that if the student got an A it means they learned,” said Jody Greene, special adviser to the provost for educational equity and academic success at UCSC, where several faculty are experimenting with various forms of un-grading.
If a student already knew the material before taking the class and got that A, “they didn’t learn anything,” said Greene, who also is director of the university’s Center for Innovations in Teaching and Learning. And “if the student came in and struggled to get a C-plus, they may have learned a lot.”
Critics respond that replacing traditional A to F grades with new forms of assessments is like a college-level version of participation trophies. They say taking away grades is coddling students and treating them like “snowflakes.”
“By getting rid of grades, we get rid of crucial information that parents and students use to determine what they’re getting out of the expensive educations they’re paying for,” said Bradley Jackson, vice president of policy at the American Council of Trustees and Alumni.
Some of the momentum behind un-grading is in response to growing concerns about student mental health. The number of college students with one or more mental health problems has doubled since 2013, according to a study by researchers at Boston University and elsewhere. Teenagers said that the pressure to get good grades was their biggest cause of stress, a 2019 survey by the Pew Research Center found.
“A lot of the time I’m just so stressed in the class that I can barely focus,” said Serena Ramirez, a UCSC freshman. “Now you’re an adult, you’re by yourself, you’re responsible for your grades. The additional stress of grades just sort of undermines the whole learning.”
That was also the case for Tamara Caselin in her freshman year at UCSC. She worked 40 hours a week on top of school and ended up changing her major, which was originally business management economics. “I felt that I was way too focused on my grades, that I wasn’t focused on my personal well-being,” said Caselin, who is now a junior.
The Covid-19 pandemic made things even worse. It “brought to light the stressors students have in their lives,” said Nate Turcotte, an assistant professor in the Department of Leadership, Technology and Research at Florida Gulf Coast University who is using assessments other than grades. That’s why some of the nation’s most prestigious universities switched from letter grades to “pass” or “fail” at the outset of the crisis.
The pandemic era’s wide-scale disruption also makes it a good time to consider changing long-held educational practices, said Robert Talbert, a math professor at Grand Valley State University who is co-writing a book about new ways of assessing students and has tried some in his own classes. “Everything seems to be on the table right now. Why not throw in the grading system while we’re at it?”
Responded Jackson: “To say that because we’ve been through a very difficult and trying time, we now need to give up forever into the future these objective criteria that we use in order to determine whether students are improving — that seems to me to be a tremendous overreaction.”
In addition to those at UCSC, a small but growing number of faculty and some academic departments at universities and colleges nationwide are experimenting with alternative kinds of assessments.
Although they’re not eliminating grades, some instructors in the University of California, Davis, Department of Mathematics are letting students decide between taking verbal and written exams, for instance, and giving them a choice of how much those exams and homework count, said Tim Lewis, the department’s vice chair for undergraduate matters.
“These efforts are meant to improve learning outcomes, as well as to be fair and advance equity, especially for new students and transfer students,” Lewis said.
The developments in California follow a March report to the University of California Board of Regents’ Academic and Student Affairs Committee that traditional grading methods could perpetuate bias; it encouraged schools to explore new means of assessment.
Several colleges and universities outside of California already practice unconventional forms of grading. At Reed College, students aren’t shown their grades so that they can “focus on learning, not on grades,” the college says. Students at New College of Florida complete contracts establishing their goals, then get written evaluations about how they’re doing. Evergreen State and Hampshire colleges forgo letter grades in favor of written evaluations. And students at Brown University have a choice among written evaluations that only they see, results of “satisfactory” or “no credit” and letter grades — A, B or C, but no D or F.
“It takes stress and anxiety away and it prioritizes their mental health. But more importantly, it prioritizes their learning,” said Turcotte. “Instead of ‘What did I get?’ it’s ‘What did I learn?’ There’s a freedom to explore, a freedom to take chances without this fear of, ‘Am I going to get marked down for this?’ ”
MIT has what it calls “ramp-up grading” for first-year students. In their first semesters, they get only a “pass,” without a letter; if they don’t pass, no grade is recorded at all. In their second semesters, they get letter grades, but grades of D and F are not recorded on their transcripts.
“Starting any university is challenging to get acclimated academically to a new environment and it’s a big change for most students because for many of them it’s their first time away from home or at a new school,” said Ian Waitz, MIT’s vice chancellor for undergraduate and graduate education and a professor of aeronautics and astronautics.
“There’s a desire to have that acclimation to the entire environment happen in a less abrupt way, where people have more of an opportunity to get calibrated.”
Many proponents of un-grading say it addresses the unfairness of a system in which some students are better ready for college than others, have to balance school with work or are first generation and feel extra stress to perform well as a result of it.
“That’s a lot of pressure, and I hear a lot, like, ‘How are your grades?’” said Amaya Rosas, who also attends UCSC and is the first in her family to go to college. She said she feels as if “I need to get good grades because I don’t want to let everybody else down.”
Greene said students who come from lower-income families are the most vulnerable to anxiety from grades. “Let’s say they get a slightly failing grade on the first quiz. They are not likely to go and seek help. They’re likely to try and disappear.”
Some drop out altogether. “One of the things that they say again and again — it’s kind of heartbreaking — they say, ‘I wasn’t satisfied with my academic performance,’ ” Greene said. “You know, they’re not saying, ‘I hated the school’ or ‘My teachers were terrible.’ ”
What grades often actually show, said Turcotte, “is if someone is food insecure or comes from a home without the support that other individuals have. There are a lot of educators out there and parents and people involved in education who are wondering how can we better help our students while also recognizing the complexities of their lives.”
Students who work while in school are also “less likely to do the extra work to get things done perfectly, or they may have had to take an extra shift at work or they don’t have transportation so they’re late for class,” said Susan Blum, a professor of anthropology at the University of Notre Dame and the editor of “Ungrading: Why Rating Students Undermines Learning (and What to Do Instead).” By comparison, she said, higher-income classmates “had Ph.D. historians teaching them in their fancy high schools.”
When she was a freshman, Olivia Disabatino “saw that I didn’t necessarily have all the resources that other students had when it came to just being prepared for college.”
Disabatino, now a UCSC junior double-majoring in psychology and anthropology and also the first in her low-income family to go to college, said: “I kind of felt like a deer in the headlights.”
None of that is conducive to learning, said Joshua Eyler, director of faculty development at the University of Mississippi, who is also working on a book about grades, called “Scarlet Letters.”
“Grades inhibit students’ creativity and their desire to take intellectual risks,” said Eyler.
Instead, they’ve become “a magnet for student anxiety,” said Adam Light, an assistant professor of physics at Colorado College. “ ‘I only got a 93? Why didn’t I get a 94?’ ”
Light enters into contracts with his students about what tasks need to be learned. “ ‘Here are the things I think are important for you to get out of this class,’ ” he tells them. “And I ask, ‘What are your goals for this class?’ And we come up with consensus. Students know exactly what has to get checked off to get a better grade.”
UCSC, which was opened as an experimental progressive campus built among a dense forest of redwoods, bay laurels and California oaks, previously let students choose whether or not to get letter grades. As the public university grew, it made grades mandatory in 2000. But some of its faculty have continued to promote un-grading.
Instead of grades, for instance, psychology professor Barbara Rogoff’s students get narrative evaluations that assess their work as, among other things, “impressive,” “extremely well developed” or “uneven.” Only at the end of the quarter does she assign required letter grades.
“I can say, ‘This student did really well in their contributions to the class, but they struggled with their writing.’ If it’s a grade, you have to average those two,” said Rogoff, who specializes in cultural variations in learning. “It makes the teachers, the professors, look at themselves more as guides rather than evaluators.”
As for the students, they learn better if they’re not focused on grades, she said. Grades “make students concerned about how they look rather than dealing with the material.”
That’s to say nothing of students who can game the system, said Talbert, at Grand Valley State. “When you see a grade on an assignment or report card, it tends not to convey a lot of information about what a student actually has learned. The grade itself has turned into the target. Learning is just a vehicle by which to earn a grade.”
But while he likes the idea of un-grading, Talbert’s own experience has made him question whether it’s necessarily a solution to inequity. Since the students in the algebra class in which he tried it were required to evaluate their own performance, he said, “What I found is that un-grading as a system is exactly as good as my students’ ability to self-assess. Those from more privileged backgrounds feel more competent to self-reflect, whereas other students struggle with that.”
Other realities also make it hard to change the longstanding tradition of letter grades. It’s how faculty themselves were largely judged as they went through college. Parents, high schools and university admissions offices put a premium on grade-point averages — an even greater one as many institutions make the SAT and ACT optional. Even car insurance companies give “good-grades discounts” to student-age drivers.
“It’s built into the system,” Rogoff said. “These are big forces that are working against getting rid of grades.”
But grades may not be the real problem, said Michael Poliakoff, president of the American Council of Trustees and Alumni. He pointed out that only 25 percent of high school students who took the ACT test last year met all four college-readiness benchmarks, which gauge the likelihood that they’ll succeed in first-year college courses; 38 percent met none. The composite score was the lowest in more than a decade.
By getting rid of grades, “I really fear that we’re shooting the messenger because we don’t like what we’re hearing,” Poliakoff said. It’s just setting up students “to slam into the wall, ultimately,” and end up with a “ticket-to-nowhere diploma that doesn’t represent the mastery of skills that will equip the person for success.”
Colleges and universities are already losing the confidence of the country, said his colleague Jackson. “To the extent that they take away standards and take away these objective indices of performance and reliability, they’re going to decrease the value of their own degrees.”
But Greene, the UCSC special adviser to the provost, said that grades “are terrible motivators for doing sustained and deep learning. And so if we were to shift our focus on to learning and away from grades, we would be able to tell whether we were graduating people with the skills that we say we’re graduating them with.”
Rogoff compares this to her own hobby: dancing.
“I got stiffer when I thought I was being watched and evaluated for how I was dancing,” she said. “It’s that sort of performance anxiety when you think people are watching you, and especially if you think you’re probably going to be judged badly.”
She added: “I learned how to get past the self-judgment and the judgment of other people and just enjoy the dancing for the dancing. And I think that’s what my students experience in my class, where I’m helping them see that there is something important about what we’re learning in this class and that that’s a bigger thing” than grades.
This story about un-grading was produced by The Hechinger Report, a nonprofit, independent news organization focused on inequality and innovation in education, in collaboration with KQED in San Francisco. Sign up for our higher education newsletter.
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