"It seems like, at least in these early years, the parents' role is to communicate with the child and let them know, 'I'm here for you when you're upset, when you need me. And when you don't need me, I'm your cheerleader,' " says Lee Raby, a psychologist and postdoctoral researcher at the University of Delaware who led the study.
Raby used data collected from 243 people who participated in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk. All the participants were followed from birth until they turned 32. "Researchers went into these kids' home at times. Other times they brought the children and their parents to the university and observed how they interacted with each other," Raby tells Shots.
Of course, parental behavior in the early years is just one of many influences, and it's not necessarily causing the benefits seen in the study. While tallying up the results, the researchers accounted for the participants' socioeconomic status and the environment in which they grew up.
Ultimately, they found that about 10 percent of someone's academic achievement was correlated with the quality of their home life at age three. Later experiences, genetic factors and even chance explain their other 90 percent, Raby says.
And a child's psychological makeup is a factor as well.
The second study, also published in Child Development, found that children's early responses to experience help predict whether or not they end up developing social anxiety disorder as teenagers — but only for those who were especially sensitive and distrustful as babies.
For this study, researchers from the University of Maryland observed how 165 babies interacted with their parents. When separated from their parents, some got upset but quickly recovered when they were reunited. Other babies had a harder time trusting their parents after a brief separation, and they weren't able to calm down after being reunited.
Those extra-sensitive babies were more likely to report feeling anxious socializing and attending parties as teenagers.
So what does this all mean? For one, it means that human development is complicated, according to Jay Belsky, a professor of human development at the University of California, Davis who was not involved in either study.
We know that our early experiences likely affect all of us to a certain extent, Belsky says. And we know that due to variations in psychological makeup, some people are be more sensitive to environmental factors than others.