The authors further argue that these attributes aren't coded into DNA. They can be taught, or at least cultivated.
Sometimes this means curricula that explicitly cover social and emotional topics. Tools for Getting Along, from the University of Florida, has elementary school students doing lessons on how to solve social problems with classmates.
The Brainology curriculum teaches middle schoolers the basics of neuroscience, like the idea that the brain is like a muscle that gets stronger with practice. This is based on research by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck that learning these facts can increase students' motivation to work hard in class.
There is also evidence supporting whole-school approaches, like Responsive Classroom, which changes how teachers and administrators do discipline.
Tooley and Bornfreund argue educators should be paying more attention to how schools are building these skills at all ages, and even holding them accountable for it. "Our goal is to get state and federal policymakers thinking about how to encourage more emphasis on these skills," says Tooley.
This doesn't mean more high-stakes tests. When it comes to assessing individual students on attributes like grit, for example, "we're not there yet," Tooley tells NPR Ed.
Instead, she argues, the best tack is to hold entire schools accountable for creating atmospheres that instill or support these qualities. This can be done using tools like school climate surveys and sharing the information publicly.
It's a good time to have this conversation. Most states, and the federal government, have expanded access to preschool in the last year. To evaluate those programs, they use a wide palette: classroom observation, self-reporting, and more.