You’ve probably seen the, “Got milk?” commercials featuring celebrities with milk mustaches, which advertise the nutritional benefit of drinking calcium-rich milk. Your body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and perform other important functions like moving your muscles. If you don’t get enough calcium by eating foods like milk or supplements, then your body pulls calcium from bone.
Your bones are alive. Your body constantly removes old bone and replaces it with new. But as you get older, you often lose bone faster than you can grow it so bones can become weak and break easily. Osteoporosis and low bone mass affect about 52 million people in the United States and result in a fracture every 3 seconds worldwide.
To help prevent osteoporosis, the use of calcium supplements is common – 43% of U.S. adults and almost 70% of postmenopausal women regularly take calcium supplements. But are these effective and safe? Recent research studies have reported inconsistent results on the benefits and risks of taking calcium supplements.
Calcium supplements commonly cause indigestion and minor constipation, and they infrequently cause kidney stones. Several recent studies suggest that they also increase the risk of heart attacks, but other recent studies disagree.
At the center of the controversy is a 2010 study published in the British Medical Journal. The study analyzed data from 15 randomized, placebo controlled studies of calcium-only supplements. The authors conclude that calcium supplements are associated with a modest increased risk of having a heart attack. Due to the wide use of these supplements, this could affect a large portion of the population. They advise, “A reassessment of the role of calcium supplements in the management of osteoporosis is warranted.”