Independent Lens: Home from School: The Children of Carlisle (2021)
KQED is proud to celebrate Native American Heritage Month starting in November with a special TV programming lineup. Premiere dates are listed below.
Tues, 11/2 11pm Searching for Sequoyah (NEW) Searching for Sequoyah spans two countries and three Cherokee nations, leading viewers on a journey through the life and death of Sequoyah. This hour-long documentary allows viewers to learn more about Sequoyah through the written language he created for the Cherokee people, interviews with his descendants, cave writings, depictions, and more.
Wed, 11/10 11pm The People’s Protectors Meet four Native American veterans who reflect on their experiences in the military during the Vietnam War and how their communities helped them carry their warrior legacy, even as they struggled with their relationship to the U.S. government.
Tues, 11/16 11pm Almost an Island (NEW) Almost an Island is a cinematic portrait of the Goodwins, an Inupiat family living above the Arctic Circle in Kotzebue, Alaska. Through observing three generations of one family over four years, the documentary explores what it means to be indigenous in the dramatically changing Arctic.
Wed, 11/17 11pm Battle Over Bears Ears (NEW) At its heart, it’s a battle for homeland and sovereignty. Bears Ears, a remote section of land lined with red cliffs and filled with juniper, sage, is at the center of a fight over who has a say in how Western landscapes are protected and managed.
Thurs, 11/18 11:30pm Beyond Recognition After decades struggling to protect her ancestors' burial places, now engulfed by San Francisco's sprawl, a Native woman from a non-federally recognized tribe and her allies occupy a sacred site to prevent its desecration. When this life-altering event fails to stop the development, they vow to follow a new path- to establish the first women-led urban Indigenous land trust. Shattering stereotypes, Beyond the Recognition explores the quest to preserve one's culture and homeland in a society bent on erasing them.
Mon, 11/22 11pm Breath of Life: Revitalizing California Languages (NEW) Exploring the painstaking efforts of dedicated indigenous Californians who have committed themselves to revitalizing the rich cultural legacy their ancestors have left to them in tribal languages, many under threat of extinction.
Tues, 11/23 9pm Independent Lens: Home from School: The Children of Carlisle (NEW) In 2017, a delegation of Northern Arapaho tribal members traveled from Wyoming to Pennsylvania to retrieve remains of three children who died at Carlisle Indian Industrial School in the 1880s. It's a journey into the troubled history of Indian boarding schools and a quest to heal generational wounds.
11pm Chasing Voices From 1907 until his death more than 50 years later, ethnologist John Peabody Harrington crisscrossed the U.S., chasing the voices of the last speakers of Native America's dying languages. Moving from one tribal community to the next, he collaborated with the last speakers to document every finite detail before their languages were lost forever. Chasing Voices chronicles Harrington's work and traces the impact of his exhaustive research on Native communities working to restore the language of their ancestors.
Mon, 11/1 5:30pm Skindigenous: Alberta - Amy Malbeuf Metis artist Amy Malbeuf's insatiable appetite for new creative outlets has led her to work in many artistic fields, including traditional Indigenous tattooing.
Tues, 11/2 5:30pm Skindigenous: Indoneisia - Aman Jepri The Mentawai people inhabit a group of islands west of Sumatra, in Indonesia.
11pm Warrior Women Warrior Women is the untold story of American Indian Movement activists who fought for civil rights in the '70s, anchored by one of the Red Power Movement's most outspoken Lakota leaders, Madonna Thunder Hawk, and her daughter Marcy Gilbert.
Fri, 11/5 5:30pm Skindigenous: British Columbia - Dion Kaszas Dion Kaszas is an artist and scholar of mixed heritage who feels a strong connection to his Interior Salish roots.
Sat, 11/6 9:30am Without A Whisper: Konnon:Kwe “Kanon:Kwe” is an untold story of how Indigenous women influenced the early suffragists in their fight for freedom and equality. Mohawk Clan Mother Louise Herne and Professor Sally Roesch Wagner shake the foundation of the established history of the women's right movement in the United States. They join forces on a journey to shed light on the hidden history of the influence of Haudenosaunee Women on the women's rights movement, possibly changing this historical narrative forever.
Sun, 11/7 9pm Independent Lens: Rumble: The Indians Who Rocked The World Discover how Native American musicians have transformed American blues, jazz and rock in this musical celebration featuring Robbie Robertson, Taj Mahal, Slash, Jackson Browne, Taboo, Quincy Jones, Tony Bennett, Iggy Pop, Steven Tyler and more.
10:30pm N. Scott Momaday: American Masters Delve into the enigmatic life and mind of the Pulitzer Prize-winning author and poet N. Scott Momaday, best known for "House Made of Dawn" and a formative voice of the Native American Renaissance in art and literature.
Mon, 11/8 5:30pm Skindigenous: Samoa - Peter Sulua'pe Western Samoa is one of the few places on the planet where traditional tattooing continued unimpeded through the colonial era.
Tues, 11/9 5:30pm Skindigenous: Newfoundland - Jordan Bennet Jordan Bennett is an artist of Mi'kmaq descent whose work blends pop culture and traditional teachings into work that connects the past, the present and the future.
Fri, 11/12 3pm Spirit Flute: Healing The Heart (NEW) Narrated by Academy Award Winning Actor Wes Studi, Spirit Flute delves into the extraordinary journey of a group of Oklahoma flute makers and artists. The sojourn begins with an understanding of the Indigenous people who live and walk the Native road on Oklahoma soil.
Sat, 11/13 9am And Now We Rise: A Portrait of Samuel Johns And Now We Rise is a portrait of Samuel Johns, a young Athabaskan hip hop artist, founder of the Forget Me Not Facebook Group for displaced people in Alaska, and activist for a cultural renaissance as he heals from his own legacy of historical trauma.
Mon, 11/15 5:30pm Skindigenous: Hawaii - Keone Nunes If Keone Nunes had never picked up the tools and answered the call to master of kakau, there would likely be no traditional tattooing in Hawaii today.
Tues, 11/16 5:30pm Skindigenous: Seattle: Nahaan Seattle-born artist Nahaan sees tattoo, like many other forms of artistic expression, as a political act and a form of resistance.
11pm Keep Talking Follow four Alaska Native women fighting to save Kodiak Alutiiq, an endangered language spoken by fewer than 40 remaining fluent Native elders. On remote Afognak Island, they inspire young people to learn the language and dances of their ancestors.
Wed, 11/17 5:30pm Skindigenous: New Zealand - Gordon Toi In the twentieth century, the Maori of New Zealand all but lost their tattooing tradition.
Thurs, 11/18 10pm Native America: From Caves to Cosmos Combine ancient wisdom and modern science to answer a 15,000-year-old question: who were America's First Peoples? The answer hides in Amazonian cave paintings, Mexican burial chambers, New Mexico's Chaco Canyon and waves off California's coast.
11pm Native America: Nature to Nations Explore the rise of great American nations. Investigate lost cities in Mexico, a temple in Peru, a potlatch ceremony in the Pacific Northwest and a tapestry of shell beads in upstate New York whose story inspired our own democracy.
Sat, 11/20 9:30am Two-Spirit Powwow "Two-Spirit Powwow" shows how the San Francisco nonprofit Bay Area American Indian Two-Spirits (BAAITS) has hosted an annual queer-friendly powwow since 2012, the first and largest LGBTQI-hosted one of its kind in North America. The film tracks growth from the modest one-room inaugural dance to the huge events now conducted at a massive venue.
Sun, 11/21 7pm Truly CA: Our Lands Life From origin to inferno, two documentaries explore the importance of land in California. Reaching north to Sonoma, CA, After the Fire charts locals as they face uncertain futures and come to understand how their community has been changed by natural disaster. The second short film, In the Land of My Ancestors, shines light on the perilous impact of colonization and settler colonialism on Ohlone people in the San Francisco Bay Area and how one Ohlone Elder, Ann Marie Sayers, created a refuge for many indigenous peoples in her ancestral land called the Indian Canyon to reclaim their culture, spirituality and indigeneity.
Wed, 11/24 5:00pm Skindigenous: Alaska - Marjorie Tahbone Marjorie Tahbone, an Alaskan artist of Inupiaq heritage, was first among the living women of her family to get her traditional chin tattoo.
Thurs, 11/25 10pm Native America: Cities of the Sky Discover the cosmological secrets behind America's ancient cities. Scientists explore some of the world's largest pyramids and 3D-scan a lost city of monumental mounds on the Mississippi River; native elders reveal ancient powers of the sky.
11pm Native America: New World Rising Discover how resistance, survival and revival are revealed through an empire of horse-mounted Comanche warriors, secret messages encoded in Aztec manuscript and a grass bridge in the Andes that spans mountains and centuries of time.
Fri, 11/26 12pm Watershed Moment Faced with worsening floods and a prized salmon population on the brink of extinction, communities along Washington's Chehalis River must decide how to prepare for climate impacts and if a new dam is the answer.
Mon, 11/29 2pm Warrior Tradition Learn the heartbreaking, inspiring and largely untold story of Native Americans in the United States military. This film relates the stories of Native American warriors from their own points of view -- stories of service, pain, courage and fear.
Mon, 11/1 5pm Stories I Didn’t Know In the hour-long documentary Stories I Didn't Know, Rita Davern examines an ugly reality at the heart of a Minnesotan family legend. While her family members have always been proud to say that their ancestors once owned Pike Island, a beautiful piece of land in Minnesota, the story of its acquisition is far less glorious than its profitability. Rita's attempts to understand what happened and why leads her on a journey that requires facing the complicated legacy of westward expansion in the United States.
Tues, 11/2 4pm La Loche In January 2016, a school shooting in the remote Canadian aboriginal community of La Loche, Saskatchewan took the lives of four students and injured seven others. In the aftermath, a caring teacher, worried about eight boys directly affected by the shooting, contacted a TV celebrity the students admired. She hoped that Survivormanstar Les Stroud might spend time with the students. La Loche follows Stroud, the eight young Dene men, and several community and school elders on a wilderness adventure, in which they canoe down a 100-mile river path that their ancestors used to traverse.
5pm America ReFramed: On a Knife Edge On a Knife Edge is the coming-of-age story of George Dull Knife, a Lakota teenager growing up on South Dakota's Pine Ridge Reservation. The film traces George's path to activism, inspired by his family's long history of fighting for justice for Native Americans. His focus: shutting down the liquor stores in Whiteclay, a tiny town nearby that exists only to sell beer to the reservation's vulnerable population.
Fri, 11/5 1pm Sand Creek Massacre What would lead approximately 675 volunteer soldiers to attack a peaceful settlement of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in southeastern Colorado Territory? On November 29, 1864, Colonel John Chivington led a group to do just that, resulting in the deaths of over one hundred men, women and children. This episode revisits the horrific events and uncovers the history 150 years later.
Tues, 11/9 4pm Hunting in Wartime "Hunting in Wartime '' profiles Tlingit veterans from Hoonah, Alaska who saw combat during the Vietnam War. The veterans talk about surviving trauma, relating to Vietnamese communities, readjusting to civilian life, and serving a government that systematically oppresses native people. Their stories give an important human face to the combat soldier and show the lasting effects of war on individuals, families and communities.
5pm America ReFramed: Blood Memory For Sandy White Hawk, the story of America's Indian Adoption Era is not one of saving children but of destroying families and tribes. As an adoption survivor, Sandy sets out to reclaim the missing pieces of her stolen past and discovers that her's was not an isolated case. Blood Memory explores the communal healing that is sparked by the return of this stolen generation, as Sandy helps organize the first annual Welcome Home Ceremony in the community from which she was removed over 60 years ago.
6pm Unspoken: America's Native American Boarding Schools "Unspoken" looks at a dark chapter of American history, the federal Indian boarding school system. The goal was total assimilation into Anglo civilization at the cost of Native American culture, tradition, and language. The film story starts with pre-history and comes full circle to modern day. Much of the film is told in first person Native American voice by the people who continue to live it."
Fri, 11/12 4pm Rising Voices/Hothaninpi Rising Voices/Hotȟaninpi is a one-hour documentary about how languages die – and how speaking them again can spark cultural and community restoration. The film focuses on the Lakota (often called “Sioux”) language and culture, the history that forced the language towards near extinction, and the challenges Lakota face today as they struggle to learn their ancestral language and teach it to their children.
5pm First Language - The Race to Save Cherokee Around fourteen thousand Cherokee remain in their ancestral homeland in the mountains of North Carolina, but few among them still speak their native language, and no children are learning the language at home. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is now fighting to revitalize the language and come to terms with their native heritage in the context of the modern United States.
Sat, 11/13 6pm Independent Lens: Conscience Point A golf club built atop a sacred burial ground triggers a woman's relentless fight to protect her tribe from the onslaughts of development.
8:30pm POV Shorts: Water Warriors
Indigenous and white families unite in a campaign to drive out an energy company searching for natural gas in New Brunswick, Canada.
Mon, 11/15 11am Skindigenous: Philippines - Wang Od Oggay and Grace Palica From a remote mountain village in the Northern Philippines, Wang Od Oggay carries on the tattooing tradition of her ancestors, offering those who come to her the sacred markings that were once reserved for the women and warriors of the Kalinga people.
Tues, 11/16 1pm Skindigenous: Prince Ruppert - Nakkita Trimble As the only living tattoo artist from the Nisga'a Nation, Nakkita Trimble hopes to revive the traditional process of tattooing known as gihlee'e.
1:30pm Skindigenous: Mexico – Samuel Olman The ancient city of Palenque was once a hub of Mayan civilization. For centuries after its decline, it lay hidden under layers of tropical vegetation, until modern archaeologists peeled back the jungle to reveal it to the world in the last century.
4pm Warrior Lawyers: Defenders of Sacred Justice Warrior Lawyers is an inspiring and compelling one hour documentary that invites viewers into the lives of contemporary Native American role models. It focuses on the under reported themes of Nation Re-Building, Tribal Justice and Cultural Revitalization. Through the personal and professional stories of American Indian Attorneys, Tribal Judges and their colleagues, the program provides an overview of the major historical, governmental, legal, judicial and intertwining social issues shaping many Federally Recognized Nations today.
5pm America ReFramed: Sisters Rising Native American women are 2.5 times more likely to experience sexual assault than all other American women, and 86% of the offenses are committed by non-Native men. Sisters Rising follows six women who refuse to let this pattern of violence continue in the shadows. Their stories shine an unflinching light on righting injustice on both an individual and systemic level.
Wed, 11/17 11am Skindigenous: Toronto – Jay Soule Jay Soule is a multidisciplinary artist known as "Chippewar" in the Indigenous community. His internationally-recognized work expresses much of the angst of today's Indigenous population in Canada.
11:30am Skindigenous: Kahnawake The Haudenosaunee Confederacy is a matrilineal society consisting of five founding Nations who later adopted a sixth nation to join their family. Kanen'tó:kon Hemlock is a traditional Bear clan representative from the Mohawk Nation at Kahnawà:ke, a small community located outside Montreal. Their traditional territory is divided between present-day Quebec, Ontario and New York State. From a young age, Kanen'tó:kon was fascinated by his culture. He began the art of tattooing to revitalize the lost tradition and ancient protocols. In this episode, he invites us to witness the first tattooing in a longhouse in roughly 300 years.
12pm Skindigenous: New Mexico Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Stephanie Big Eagle grew up astray from her identity. She reconnected with her culture when she rekindled relationships in her home community, the Yankton Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. She immersed herself in the fight for aboriginal rights and became a prominent figure in the Dakota pipeline protests, where her thunder hawk hand poke design became a symbol of the standoff. Stephanie found her calling as an environmental and Indigenous activist and full-time hand poke tattoo artist. She sees the revitalization of hand poke as a gift to be offered with love, gratitude, and respect, particularly for the ancestors.
12:30pm Skindigenous: India Mo Naga is a traditional tattoo artist from Manipur, in the lush North East Region of India on the Myanmar border. While studying fashion design in his early 20s, Mo Naga stumbled across some interesting Naga textile designs and quickly realized their cultural importance. He gradually started researching, archiving and preserving them. His creativity and love for tattoos led him to create a neo-Naga style of design. Mo Naga now works diligently from his New Delhi tattoo studio reviving the traditional Naga tattoo culture of his people and the whole North East Region of India.
1pm Skindigenous: Taiwan The Paiwan people are one of about 20 Indigenous minorities who make up roughly 3 percent of the population of Taiwan. When Cudjuy Patjidres discovered that his Paiwanese ancestors had a tattoo culture, he was surprised and amazed. Having developed his artistic skills from watching his grandfather weave and carve wood, he is now dedicated to preserving the ancient symbols and designs that were once common on the island.
1:30pm Skindigenous: Lebret Metis artist Audie Murray sees tattooing as a way for people to connect with their culture and communities when they are away from home. Audie's art and tattoo practice draw from the duality in her life, especially her experience growing up in Regina and Lebret, and then moving to Vancouver to pursue her art career. She finds inspiration for her work in Metis beaded designs. When Audie returns home to Regina and Lebret, her work is centered around creating and learning from family.
4pm Our American Family: The Kurowskis Our American Family: The Kurowskis presents the story of a woman born and raised on the Oneida Reservation in Wisconsin married to the son of Polish immigrants. At the time, Native Americans had been pressured to forsake their heritage and assimilate into the culture of their white neighbors. Following a tragedy at a paper mill, the Kurowski family moves to the center of the reservation where their selflessness strengthens the community and prepares the next generation to support their Oneida heritage.
Thurs, 11/18 11am Skindigenous: Nimkii Isaac Murdoch and Christi Belcourt founded the Onaman Collective, which represents a group of multidisciplinary artists who focus on land-based decolonization. They established a new traditional community called Nimkii Aazhibikong in Northern Ontario. Under the guidance of elders, they studied ancient markings from the past and are carrying them forward by tattooing individuals from various nations to unify the Indigenous peoples of the land.
11:30am Skindigenous: New Zealand Julie Paama-Pengelly is a veteran in the revitalization of ta moko Maori tattooing. Her studio in Mount Maunganui mixes contemporary and traditional designs and cultivates artists from all walks of life. With twenty years teaching experience, her art practice ranges from the use of symbolic imagery to pure abstraction in graphic design, painting, mixed media, and tattooing. Over time many misconceptions have surfaced about who has the right to wear and practice tâ moko. Julie is one of the first women to practice in the male-dominated field. She is a strong voice for Maori women's rights and continues to break down barriers to give women a place in tâ moko and in the arts.
12pm Skindigenous: New Zealand Pip Hartley is on a mission to infuse Auckland's city core with as much Maori culture as possible. From her Karanaga Ink studio, she practices traditional and contemporary Maori tattooing, tâ moko. Although her approach is always guided in Maori style, it is a dance between artist and receiver in telling a story that will become permanent. Pip embraces the power of artistic expression to inspire and educate. Karanaga Ink has become one of Auckland's most respected Maori businesses in a very influential part of New Zealand. Pip takes every opportunity to educate, include and invite the modern world to step into Maori culture and gain a better first-hand understanding of her people.
12:30pm Skindigenous: Iqaluit Northern Canada is home to the oldest tattooing traditions on the planet. Ippiksaut Friesen, a well-known young Inuk artist, was inspired to follow the many Inuit women before her and develop tattooing skills for her sisters. Notwithstanding the challenges in maintaining and reclaiming Inuit traditions in a world strongly affected by contemporary society and climate change, the importance of female tattooing among Inuit women continues to grow. Ippiksaut hopes to play a vital role in the resurgence of traditional tattooing.
1pm Skindigenous: Amsterdam In the 1950s, warriors from the Dutch-controlled Maluku islands who were fighting alongside Dutch soldiers against the Indonesians were brought back to the Netherlands by force. As a descendant of that Moluccan diaspora, Joe Patty-Sabandar has been rediscovering and reconnecting with his traditional ancestral culture. As a tattoo artist, he is very keen to preserve and share Moluccan culture as it existed before the Portuguese colonized the Maluku islands. He is part of a group of third and fourth generation Dutch-Moluccans who are thirsty for knowledge and the ancient culture of their homeland.
1:30pm Skindigenous: Haida Gwaii When Haida artist Kwiaahwah Jones picked up the needle and traditional Haida tattoo practices that were once outlawed, she inspired a whole new generation to embrace their Haida culture and make it their own. She has curated Haida art exhibits across Canada but found her true calling in Haida hand poke tattoos. Tattooing was an important part of Haida culture, signifying family lineage and rank in society. Kwiaahwah draws inspiration from being out on the land and water in Haida Gwaii. She sees the revitalization of Haida tattooing as a reconnection to her ancestors.
Fri, 11/19 4pm We’re Still Here Through their music and work in communities and in schools, First Nation indigenous hip-hop artists in Canada lead an effort to right long standing social injustices, heal personal traumas, and preserve their cultures.
Sat, 11/20 4pm Independent Lens: Attla Discover the inspiring true story of Alaska Native dogsled champion George Attla, who, with one good leg and fierce determination, rose to international fame. His racing prowess and ability to identify and train exceptional dogs made him a legend.
6pm Independent Lens: Dawnland See how a group of Native and non-Native leaders in Maine came together to acknowledge and address the abuses suffered by Native children in the hands of the child welfare system, illuminating the ongoing crisis of indigenous child removal.
Mon, 11/22 12pm Red Power Energy Red Power Energy is a provocative film told from the American Indian perspective that reframes today’s complex energy debate. From tribes mining coal, drilling oil and fracking natural gas to a coalition of tribes and individuals building sustainable wind farms and small-scale residential solar, an engrossing story emerges that showcases America’s Indigenous population reclaiming their right of self-determination.
1pm Growing Native: Growing Native Northwest: Coast Salish Venture to the Pacific Northwest to capture the stories of ongoing traditions and perseverance of its original inhabitants. For the tribes of this region, water is life. The rivers that crisscross this land were the highways for trade and fresh water grocery stores for thousands of years. Today, tribes celebrate their cultures by participating in a yearly canoe journey, an opportunity for people to gather and travel to all the places their ancestors once inhabited. From totem poles, to language preservation to traditional crafts, host Chris Eyre (Cheyenne Arapaho) discovers the wilds of the North.
4pm Art of Home: A Wind River Story From modern art to beading and leather work to drumming, and music, we'll follow Native American artists with a connection to the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming through their creative process. These artists explain how their art connects them to their tribal past, present, and future.
5pm Horse Relative The Horse Relative explores the historic art of horse regalia and how the tradition is being revived and reinterpreted by Dakota communities for a new generation. Interviewees discuss the sacred relationship between the horse and the Dakota people, and the centuries-old tradition of dressing horses for ceremonies and celebrations. The film also looks at the efforts of artists, educators and community leaders to preserve and restore the Dakota language, cultural traditions and lifeways.
Tues, 11/23 1pm Growing Native: Growing Native Alaska: People of the North All across Alaska, Native cultures have depended on the abundant natural resources found there to support their families, cultures and ways of life. Now, however, those resources are growing scarce, and the people who have relied on them for centuries have to find new ways to adapt. Growing Native visits some of the many communities engaged in this familiar struggle - the struggle to maintain their traditions and ways of life, while continuing to thrive in a constantly changing world. Host Chris Eyre (Cheyenne Arapaho) meets Alaska Natives who thrive and survive in this complex environment.
4pm The First Official Thanksgiving Most people think that Thanksgiving was first observed by the Pilgrims in 1621. It wasn’t. In 1619, a group of English settlers landed on the banks of the James River in Virginia and gave thanks for safe passage. This was America’s First Official Thanksgiving.
6pm Medicine Game The Medicine Game, a film six years in the making, shares the remarkable journey of two brothers from the Onondaga Nation driven by a single goal-to beat the odds and play the sport of lacrosse for national powerhouse Syracuse University.
Weds, 11/24 1pm Growing Native: Growing Native Great Lakes: Turtle Island Over the Centuries, the Great Lakes have been home to hundreds of tribes and a source of freshwater, food, and health. Indigenous creation stories describe the world that came into being on the back of a turtle shell, and today they know the earth as Turtle Island. Growing Native host Stacey Thunder (Red Lake and Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe) guides this journey by engaging tribal voices while touring Indian country with those who still devote their lives to care for the land.
Thurs 11/25 1pm Growing Native: Growing Native Oklahoma: Red People Oklahoma is home to thirty-nine federally recognized tribes. Nowhere in North America will you find such diversity among Native Peoples, and nowhere will you find a more tragic history. Host Moses Brings Plenty (Oglala Lakota) guides this episode of Growing Native, on a journey to Oklahoma's past and present. What he discovers among the many faces of Oklahoma culture is the determination, values and respect that tribes have brought to this land, once called Indian Territory.
Sat, 11/27 4pm Racing the Rez After a narrow win hands Tuba City High School their 19th state championship, second place finisher Chinle sets out to topple their rivals and finally claim victory for themselves.